action plan : a document defining actions for ensuring compliance with applicable laws, regulations, and policy mandates
adverse possession : a method of acquiring title to real property by possession for a statutory period under certain conditions
affected communities : communities that are subject to risks or impacts from project operations
artifact : a portable object that is created by past human activity
biodiversity : variety of life in all its forms, including genetic, species and ecosystem diversity
community history : detailed account of the community’s past, detailing how things have changed, with a particular focus on relationships with external actors and the trends these relations have followed, as well as internal dynamics within the community
census : the official process of counting a population of a given jurisdiction
civil society : a network of actors, associations, agencies and institutions operating between the state and the market
community history : detailed account of the community’s past, detailing how things have changed, with a particular focus on relationships with external actors and the trends these relations have followed, as well as internal dynamics within the community
compensation in kind : compensation for losses that cannot be easily valued or compensated for in monetary terms
consultation : a process of two-way communication between project developers and stakeholders in which views, preferences, and information are exchanged in a culturally appropriate manner, within locally-appropriate time frames, and using locally-understood languages and communication formats
Country Safeguard Systems (CSS) : national, subnational, or sectoral implementing institutions and relevant laws, regulations, rules, and procedures that pertain to the policy areas of environmental and social safeguards
cultural heritage : any non-renewable resource possessing cultural, scientific, spiritual or religious value
development : the act or process of growing (or causing something to grow), or become larger, more advanced, or more complex over a over a period of time
development paradigm : actions, activities, and programmes based on, and extending from, salient theories and beliefs about what consitutes 'development'
grievance : a concern or complaint raised by an individual or a group within communities affected by company operations
international financial institution : financial institutions that have been established (or chartered) by more than one country
involuntary resettlement : physical and/or economic displacement resulting from project-related land acquisition where affected individuals or communities do not have the right to contest their loss of land use and access
meta-phenomenon : a high-level categorisation and grouping of facts, acts, ideas or locution realized as phenomena
Performance Standards : policy guidelines for how to identify, avoid, mitigate, and manage environmental and social risks and impacts; initially, only IFC had Performance Standards
replacement cost : market value of assets plus transaction costs
replacement cost of public structures : the cost of purchasing or building a new structure, with an area and quality similar to or better than those of the affected structure, or of repairing a partially affected structure, including labor and contractors’ fees and transaction costs such as registration and transfer taxes
replacement cost of urban land : the market value of land of equivalent area and use, with similar or improved infrastructure and services preferably located in the vicinity of the affected land, plus transaction costs such as registration and transfer taxes
resettlement : the transportation of a people to a new area for settlement
retrenchment : the elimination of a significant number of employee positions or the dismissal or layoff of a significant number of employees by an employer
safeguard policy : policies intended to prevent and mitigate undue harm to people and their environment in the development process
social analysis : the practice of analyzing a situation or social issue, problem or trend through objective, systematic exploration—often with the aim of prompting change
social development : transformative processes of social change, usually intended to benefit human well-being
social development practitioner : a category of professionals (primarily comprised of social scientists) working (i.e., practising) in the field of international social development
social indicator : a value measured when conducting systematic evaluation or when defining performance targets and auditing criteria
social policy : 1) regulatory measures (guidelines, principles, legislation and activities) intended to ensure or effect the well-being of a society and its constituent members; 2) an interdisciplinary field of study and (applied) practice that is concerned with societies' responses to social need
stakeholder analysis : a technique to identify and assess the importance and interests of key people, groups, or institutions usually in relation to specific policies, programmes or communities
stakeholders : all individuals and/or groups who can reasonably be expected to be affected by, or can affect project operations
survey : a sampling, or partial collection, of facts, figures, or opinions
temporality : the state of existing within or having some relationship with time
triangulation : the technique of integrating multiple lines of investigation and analysis of a topic of inquiry to ensure the integrity of data sources, to enhance the insights of analytical inquiry, as well as to enhance confidence in the ensuing findings